Chinese Pinyin – Pinyin Tone changes

In Mandarin Chinese it happens that sometimes we change the tones of certain Pinyin syllable to improve the clarity or ease pronunciation difficulties, here are some general rules.

1. The 3rd tone is a changeable tone. When two 3rd tones come together, the first 3rd tone should be changed into a 2nd tone, e.g., nĭ hăo (你好 hello) should be pronounced níhăo.

2. When a 3rd tone is followed by a 1st, 2nd, 4th or neutral tone, the 3rd tone should be pronounced as a low 3rd tone. In other words it is a low sustained tone, e.g., as in jĭnzhāng (紧张 nervous) and jiĕfàng (解放 liberate). Both jĭn and jiĕ stay in the lower part of your voice and you don’t move the sound up.

3. Only under the following situations should the 3rd tone be pronounced as a proper 3rd tone:

* when a 3rd tone is on its own. For example, the mono-syllabic expression hăo (好 OK, all right).
* when a 3rd tone is at the end of a sentence or a phrase, e.g. fànghăo (放好 to put [something] properly.)

4. When a sentence has three third tones next to each other, it can be changed into the following two patterns:

* second, second and proper third
* lower third, second and proper third.

For example: wŏ hĕn hăo (我很好 I am fine) can be pronounced either wŏ hénhăo or wó hénhăo.

The neutral tone in Mandarin Chinese is a short and light tone, as described above. The best way to remember how to pronounce the neutral tone is to remember its length and its pitch as follows:

* The syllable before the neutral tone should be pronounced longer, as if it is a crochet in music notation and the neutral tone as a quaver.
* A neutral tone should be in the middle range of your voice. If a neutral tone is preceded by a low tone such as a third (curved) tone or a low ending tone such as a fourth (falling) tone, the neutral tone should end up at a higher pitch than the preceding tones; if a neutral tone is preceded by a first (sustained) tone or second (rising) tone, the neutral tone should end at a lower pitch than the preceding tones.

Here are some examples of tone changes

1 xiè xie 2 hăo ma 3 mā ma 4 péng you
5 jiĕ jie 6 xìng zhi 7 hái zi 8 yá men

Mandarin Chinese Pinyin – Pinyin Tones

There are four tones in Mandarin Chinese Pinyin, plus one neutral tone(or called “no tone”).

First tone in Chinese Pinyin
The first tone is marked as a straight line like this¯. It has a long and sustained sound (as if singing a note).

Second tone in Chinese Pinyin
The second tone is marked upwards like this . It is a rising tone (start from the lower part of your voice, then go up).

Third tone in Chinese Pinyin
The third tone is marked down and up like this ˇ. It is a low and curved tone. Try to go as low as you can and then bounce up.

Fourth in Chinese Pinyin
The fourth tone is marked downwards like this. It is a falling tone (start from the grating highest part of your voice, then go down, as if exclaiming).

Neutral in Chinese Pinyin
The neutral tone has no mark. It is a short and light tone.

Where should I mark the tones?
Tones should be marked on a vowel. If a word has more than one vowel, the tone should be marked on the main vowel of the word. Vowels are listed in the following order: a, o, e, i, u and ü. As the vowel ‘a’ appears first in this list, the tone in the word liao should be marked on the vowel ‘a’.

Chinese Pinyin rules and exceptions

There are three parts in Chinese Pinyin: the initial, the final, and the tone. In Chinese pinyin, the tone, initial, and final are represented as follows:


The tone is represented by a tone mark placed on top of the syllable. There are exactly four tone marks: ˉ, ˊ, ˇ, and ˋ. The two dots on ü (like a German umlaut) do not have to do with the tone, so if you see ǖ, ǘ, ǚ, or ǜ, the symbol above the dots represents the tone.


The initial is:

* at the front of the syllable
* a consonant (not including y, or w)
* usually one letter, except for:zh, ch, sh


The final is made up of the letter(s) after a syllable’s initial, not including the tone mark. A final:

* begins with a vowel
* can be made of 1-4 characters
* end with a vowel, n, ng, or r

Exceptions to initial-final combinations in syllables

Some syllables have no initial or no final. In Pinyin, this is shown as follows:

* For syllables with no final:
o an unpronounced i is added to the end of the syllable
o Occurs only with the following initials:zh, ch, sh, r, z, c, s
* For syllables with no initial:
o if the final begins with an i, it is replaced with a y
o if the final begins with an u, it is replaced with a w
o if the final begins with an ü, it is replaced with yu
o Exceptions to the above:
+ i alone is replaced by yi
+ iu is replaced by you
+ in is replaced by yin
+ ing is replaced by ying
+ u alone is replaced by wu
+ ui is replaced by wei
+ un is replaced by wen
+ ueng is replaced by weng

One other exception:

* when combined with initials j, q, any ü in a final is changed to u

Chinese Pinyin and Zhuyin Fuhao conversion table

ㄚ a ㄇㄧㄡ miu
ㄞ ai ㄇㄛ mo
ㄢ an ㄇㄡ mou
ㄤ ang ㄇㄨ mu
ㄠ ao ㄋㄚ na
ㄅㄚ ba ㄋㄞ nai
ㄅㄞ bai ㄋㄢ nan
ㄅㄢ ban ㄋㄤ nang
ㄅㄤ bang ㄋㄠ nao
ㄅㄠ bao ㄋㄜ ne
ㄅㄟ bei ㄋㄟ nei
ㄅㄣ ben ㄋㄣ nen
ㄅㄥ beng ㄋㄥ neng
ㄅㄧ bi ㄋㄧ ni
ㄅㄧㄢ bian ㄋㄧㄚ nia
ㄅㄧㄠ biao ㄋㄧㄢ nian
ㄅㄧㄝ bie ㄋㄧㄤ niang
ㄅㄧㄣ bin ㄋㄧㄠ niao
ㄅㄧㄥ bing ㄋㄧㄝ nie
ㄅㄛ bo ㄋㄧㄣ nin
ㄅㄨ bu ㄋㄧㄥ ning
ㄘㄚ ca ㄋㄧㄡ niu
ㄘㄞ cai ㄋㄨㄥ nong
ㄘㄢ can ㄋㄡ nou
ㄘㄤ cang ㄋㄨ nu
ㄘㄠ cao ㄋㄨㄢ nuan
ㄘㄜ ce ㄋㄨㄣ nun
ㄘㄣ cen ㄋㄨㄛ nuo
ㄘㄥ ceng ㄋㄩ nü
ㄔㄚ cha ㄋㄩㄝ nüe
ㄔㄞ chai ㄡ ou
ㄔㄢ chan ㄆㄚ pa
ㄔㄤ chang ㄆㄞ pai
ㄔㄠ chao ㄆㄢ pan
ㄔㄜ che ㄆㄤ pang
ㄔㄣ chen ㄆㄠ pao
ㄔㄥ cheng ㄆㄟ pei
ㄔ chi ㄆㄣ pen
ㄔㄨㄥ chong ㄆㄥ peng
ㄔㄡ chou ㄆㄧ pi
ㄔㄨ chu ㄆㄧㄢ pian
ㄔㄨㄚ chua ㄆㄧㄠ piao
ㄔㄨㄞ chuai ㄆㄧㄝ pie
ㄔㄨㄢ chuan ㄆㄧㄣ pin
ㄔㄨㄤ chuang ㄆㄧㄥ ping
ㄔㄨㄟ chui ㄆㄛ po
ㄔㄨㄣ chun ㄆㄡ pou
ㄔㄨㄛ chuo ㄆㄨ pu
ㄘ ci ㄑㄧ qi
ㄘㄨㄥ cong ㄑㄧㄚ qia
ㄘㄡ cou ㄑㄧㄢ qian
ㄘㄨ cu ㄑㄧㄤ qiang
ㄘㄨㄢ cuan ㄑㄧㄠ qiao
ㄘㄨㄟ cui ㄑㄧㄝ qie
ㄘㄨㄣ cun ㄑㄧㄣ qin
ㄘㄨㄛ cuo ㄑㄧㄥ qing
ㄉㄚ da ㄑㄩㄥ qiong
ㄉㄞ dai ㄑㄧㄡ qiu
ㄉㄢ dan ㄑㄩ qu
ㄉㄤ dang ㄑㄩㄢ quan
ㄉㄠ dao ㄑㄩㄝ que
ㄉㄜ de ㄑㄩㄣ qun
ㄉㄟ dei ㄖㄢ ran
ㄉㄣ den ㄖㄤ rang
ㄉㄥ deng ㄖㄠ rao
ㄉㄧ di ㄖㄜ re
ㄉㄧㄢ dian ㄖㄣ ren
ㄉㄧㄤ diang ㄖㄥ reng
ㄉㄧㄠ diao ㄖ ri
ㄉㄧㄝ die ㄖㄨㄥ rong
ㄉㄧㄥ ding ㄖㄡ rou
ㄉㄧㄡ diu ㄖㄨ ru
ㄉㄨㄥ dong ㄖㄨㄢ ruan
ㄉㄡ dou ㄖㄨㄟ rui
ㄉㄨ du ㄖㄨㄣ run
ㄉㄨㄢ duan ㄖㄨㄛ ruo
ㄉㄨㄟ dui ㄙㄚ sa
ㄉㄨㄣ dun ㄙㄞ sai
ㄉㄨㄛ duo ㄙㄢ san
ㄜ e ㄙㄤ sang
ㄟ ei ㄙㄠ sao
ㄣ en ㄙㄜ se
ㄦ er ㄙㄟ sei
ㄈㄚ fa ㄙㄣ sen
ㄈㄢ fan ㄙㄥ seng
ㄈㄤ fang ㄕㄚ sha
ㄈㄟ fei ㄕㄞ shai
ㄈㄣ fen ㄕㄢ shan
ㄈㄥ feng ㄕㄤ shang
ㄈㄛ fo ㄕㄠ shao
ㄈㄡ fou ㄕㄜ she
ㄈㄨ fu ㄕㄟ shei
ㄍㄚ ga ㄕㄣ shen
ㄍㄞ gai ㄕㄥ sheng
ㄍㄢ gan ㄕ shi
ㄍㄤ gang ㄕㄨㄥ shong
ㄍㄠ gao ㄕㄡ shou
ㄍㄜ ge ㄕㄨ shu
ㄍㄟ gei ㄕㄨㄚ shua
ㄍㄣ gen ㄕㄨㄞ shuai
ㄍㄥ geng ㄕㄨㄢ shuan
ㄍㄨㄥ gong ㄕㄨㄤ shuang
ㄍㄡ gou ㄕㄨㄟ shui
ㄍㄨ gu ㄕㄨㄣ shun
ㄍㄨㄚ gua ㄕㄨㄛ shuo
ㄍㄨㄞ guai ㄙ si
ㄍㄨㄢ guan ㄙㄨㄥ song
ㄍㄨㄤ guang ㄙㄡ sou
ㄍㄨㄟ gui ㄙㄨ su
ㄍㄨㄣ gun ㄙㄨㄢ suan
ㄍㄨㄛ guo ㄙㄨㄟ sui
ㄏㄚ ha ㄙㄨㄣ sun
ㄏㄞ hai ㄙㄨㄛ suo
ㄏㄢ han ㄊㄚ ta
ㄏㄤ hang ㄊㄞ tai
ㄏㄠ hao ㄊㄢ tan
ㄏㄜ he ㄊㄤ tang
ㄏㄟ hei ㄊㄠ tao
ㄏㄣ hen ㄊㄜ te
ㄏㄥ heng ㄊㄥ teng
ㄏㄨㄥ hong ㄊㄧ ti
ㄏㄡ hou ㄊㄧㄢ tian
ㄏㄨ hu ㄊㄧㄠ tiao
ㄏㄨㄚ hua ㄊㄧㄝ tie
ㄏㄨㄞ huai ㄊㄧㄥ ting
ㄏㄨㄢ huan ㄊㄨㄥ tong
ㄏㄨㄤ huang ㄊㄡ tou
ㄏㄨㄟ hui ㄊㄨ tu
ㄏㄨㄣ hun ㄊㄨㄢ tuan
ㄏㄨㄛ huo ㄊㄨㄟ tui
ㄐㄧ ji ㄊㄨㄣ tun
ㄐㄧㄚ jia ㄊㄨㄛ tuo
ㄐㄧㄢ jian ㄨㄚ wa
ㄐㄧㄤ jiang ㄨㄞ wai
ㄐㄧㄠ jiao ㄨㄢ wan
ㄐㄧㄝ jie ㄨㄤ wang
ㄐㄧㄣ jin ㄨㄟ wei
ㄐㄧㄥ jing ㄨㄣ wen
ㄐㄩㄥ jiong ㄨㄥ weng
ㄐㄧㄡ jiu ㄨㄛ wo
ㄐㄩ ju ㄨ wu
ㄐㄩㄢ juan ㄒㄧ xi
ㄐㄩㄝ jue ㄒㄧㄚ xia
ㄐㄩㄣ jun ㄒㄧㄢ xian
ㄎㄚ ka ㄒㄧㄤ xiang
ㄎㄞ kai ㄒㄧㄠ xiao
ㄎㄢ kan ㄒㄧㄝ xie
ㄎㄤ kang ㄒㄧㄣ xin
ㄎㄠ kao ㄒㄧㄥ xing
ㄎㄜ ke ㄒㄩㄥ xiong
ㄎㄣ ken ㄒㄧㄡ xiu
ㄎㄥ keng ㄒㄩ xu
ㄎㄨㄥ kong ㄒㄩㄢ xuan
ㄎㄡ kou ㄒㄩㄝ xue
ㄎㄨ ku ㄒㄩㄣ xun
ㄎㄨㄚ kua ㄧㄚ ya
ㄎㄨㄞ kuai ㄧㄢ yan
ㄎㄨㄢ kuan ㄧㄤ yang
ㄎㄨㄤ kuang ㄧㄠ yao
ㄎㄨㄟ kui ㄧㄝ ye
ㄎㄨㄣ kun ㄧ yi
ㄎㄨㄛ kuo ㄧㄣ yin
ㄌㄚ la ㄧㄥ ying
ㄌㄞ lai ㄩㄥ yong
ㄌㄢ lan ㄧㄡ you
ㄌㄤ lang ㄩ yu
ㄌㄠ lao ㄩㄢ yuan
ㄌㄜ le ㄩㄝ yue
ㄌㄟ lei ㄩㄣ yun
ㄌㄥ leng ㄗㄚ za
ㄌㄧ li ㄗㄞ zai
ㄌㄧㄚ lia ㄗㄢ zan
ㄌㄧㄢ lian ㄗㄤ zang
ㄌㄧㄤ liang ㄗㄠ zao
ㄌㄧㄠ liao ㄗㄜ ze
ㄌㄧㄝ lie ㄗㄟ zei
ㄌㄧㄣ lin ㄗㄣ zen
ㄌㄧㄥ ling ㄗㄥ zeng
ㄌㄧㄡ liu ㄓㄚ zha
ㄌㄛ lo ㄓㄞ zhai
ㄌㄨㄥ long ㄓㄢ zhan
ㄌㄡ lou ㄓㄤ zhang
ㄌㄨ lu ㄓㄠ zhao
ㄌㄨㄢ luan ㄓㄜ zhe
ㄌㄨㄣ lun ㄓㄟ zhei
ㄌㄨㄛ luo ㄓㄣ zhen
ㄌㄩ lü ㄓㄥ zheng
ㄌㄩㄝ lüe ㄓ zhi
ㄌㄩㄣ lün ㄓㄨㄥ zhong
ㄇㄚ ma ㄓㄡ zhou
ㄇㄞ mai ㄓㄨ zhu
ㄇㄢ man ㄓㄨㄚ zhua
ㄇㄤ mang ㄓㄨㄞ zhuai
ㄇㄠ mao ㄓㄨㄢ zhuan
ㄇㄜ me ㄓㄨㄤ zhuang
ㄇㄟ mei ㄓㄨㄟ zhui
ㄇㄣ men ㄓㄨㄣ zhun
ㄇㄥ meng ㄓㄨㄛ zhuo
ㄇㄧ mi ㄗ zi
ㄇㄧㄢ mian ㄗㄨㄥ zong
ㄇㄧㄠ miao ㄗㄡ zou
ㄇㄧㄝ mie ㄗㄨ zu
ㄇㄧㄣ min ㄗㄨㄢ zuan
ㄇㄧㄥ ming ㄗㄨㄟ zui
ㄗㄨㄣ zun
ㄗㄨㄛ zuo

Where to place Chinese Pinyin tone mark?


Tone marks in Hanyu Pinyin always go over vowels, not consonants. But even those familiar with Hanyu Pinyin are often uncertain about which in a string of vowels takes the tone mark. If, for example, you are given “huai4″ — is it hùai, huài, or huaì? (Answer: the second choice.)

Fortunately there are no ambiguities to worry about, even where there are several vowels in a row. Various complicated rules explain the placement. Fortunately, in application they boil down to a few very simple guidelines:

* A and e trump all other vowels and always take the tone mark. There are no Mandarin syllables in Hanyu Pinyin that contain both a and e.
* In the combination ou, o takes the mark.
* In all other cases, the final vowel takes the mark.





中華人民共和國國家標準GB/T 16159—1996


1996-01-22發布 1996-07-01實施



1. 主題內容與適用範圍 Main Topics and Applications
2. 術語 Terminology
3. 制定原則 Principles for Formulation of the Rules
4. 中文拼音正詞法基本規則 Basic Rules for Hanyu Pinyin Orthography
1. 總原則 General Guidelines
2. 名詞 Nouns
3. 動詞 Verbs
4. 形容詞 Adjectives
5. 代詞 Pronouns
6. 數詞和量詞 Numbers and Classifiers
7. 虛詞 Function Words
8. 成語 Chengyu
9. 大寫 Capitalization
10. 移行 Hyphenation at the End of a Line
11. 標調 Tone Marking

1. 主題內容與適用範圍


2. 術語


3. 制定原則
1. 以詞爲拼寫單位,幷適當考慮語音、語義等因素,同時考慮詞形長短適度。
2. 基本采取按語法詞類分節叙述。
3. 規則條目盡可能詳簡適中,便于掌握應用。
4. 中文拼音正詞法基本規則
1. 總原則
1. 拼寫普通話基本上以詞爲書寫單位。
* rén (人)
* pǎo (跑)
* hǎo (好)
* hé (和)
* hěn (很)
* fúróng (芙蓉)
* qiǎokèlì (巧克力)
* péngyǒu (朋友)
* yuèdú (閱讀)
* dìzhèn (地震)
* niánqīng (年輕)
* zhòngshì (重視)
* wǎnhuì (晚會)
* qiānmíng (簽名)
* shìwēi (示威)
* niǔzhuǎn (扭轉)
* chuánzhī (船隻)
* dànshì (但是)
* fēicháng (非常)
* diànshìjī (電視機)
* túshūguǎn (圖書館)
2. 表示一個整體概念的雙音節和三音節結構,連寫。
* gāngtiě (鋼鐵)
* wèndá (問答)
* hǎifēng (海風)
* hóngqí (紅旗)
* dàhuì (大會)
* quánguó (全國)
* zhòngtián (種田)
* kāihuì (開會)
* dǎpò (打破)
* zǒulái (走來)
* húshuō (胡說)
* dǎnxiǎo (膽小)
* qiūhǎitáng (秋海棠 )
* àiniǎozhōu (愛鳥周)
* duìbuqǐ (對不起)
* chīdexiāo (吃得消)
3. 四音節以上表示一個整體概念的名稱,按詞(或語節)分開寫,不能按詞 (或語節)劃分的,全部連寫。
* wúfèng gāngguǎn (無縫鋼管)
* huánjìng bǎohù guīhuà (環境保護規劃)
* jīngtǐguǎn gōnglǜ fàngdàqì (電晶體功率放大器)
* Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó (中華人民共和國)
* Zhōngguó Shèhuì Kēxuéyuàn (中國社會科學院)
* yánjiūshēngyuàn (研究生院)
* hóngshízìhuì (紅十字會)
* yúxīngcǎosù (魚腥草素 )
* gǔshēngwùxuéjiā (古生物學家)
4. 單音節詞重叠,連寫;雙音節詞重叠,分寫。
* rénrén (人人)
* niánnián (年年)
* kànkan (看看)
* shuōshuo (說說)
* dàdà (大大)
* hónghóngde (紅紅的)
* gègè (個個)
* tiáotiáo (條條)
* yánjiū yánjiū (研究研究)
* chángshì chángshì (嘗試嘗試)
* xuěbái xuěbái (雪白雪白)
* tōnghóng tōnghóng (通紅通紅)
* 重叠幷列即AABB式結構,當中加短橫。
* láilai-wǎngwǎng (來來往往)
* shuōshuo-xiàoxiào (說說笑笑)
* qīngqīng-chǔchǔ (清清楚楚)
* wānwān-qūqū (彎彎曲曲)
* jiājiā-hùhù (家家戶戶)
* qiānqiān-wànwàn (千千萬萬)
5. 爲了便于閱讀和理解,在某些場合可以用短橫。
* huán-bǎo (環保——環境保護)
* gōng-guān (公關——公共關係)
* bājiǔtiān (八九天)
* shíqī-bā suì (十七八歲)
* rén-jī duìhuà (人機對話)
* zhōng-xiǎoxué (中小學)
* lù-hǎi-kōngjūn (陸海空軍)
* biànzhèng-wéiwùzhǔyì (辯證唯物主義)
2. 名詞
1. 名詞與單音節前加成分 (副、總、非、反、超、老、阿、可、無等) 和單音節後加成分 (子、兒、頭、性、者、員、家、手、化、們等) ,連寫。
* fùbùzhǎng (副部長)
* zǒnggōngchéngshī (總工程師)
* fēijīnshǔ (非金屬)
* fǎndàndàodǎodàn (反彈道導彈)
* chāoshēngbō (超聲波)
* fēiyèwùrényuán (非業務人員)
* zhuōzi (桌子)
* mùtou (木頭)
* chéngwùyuán (乘務員)
* yìshùjiā (藝術家)
* kēxuéxìng (科學性)
* xiàndàihuà (現代化)
* háizimen (孩子們)
* tuōlājīshǒu (拖拉機手)
2. 名詞和後面的方位詞,分寫。
* shān shàng (山上)
* shù xià (樹下)
* mén wài (門外)
* mén wàimian (門外面)
* hé li (河裏)
* hé lǐmian (河裏面)
* huǒchē shàngmian (火車上面)
* xuéxiào pángbiān (學校旁邊)
* Yǒngdìng Hé shàng (永定河上)
* Huáng Hé yǐnán (黃河以南)
* 但已經成詞的,連寫,例如:“海外”不等于“海的外面”。
* tiānshang (天上)
* dìxia (地下)
* kōngzhōng (空中)
* hǎiwài (海外)
3. 漢語人名按姓和名分寫,姓和名的開頭字母大寫。筆名、別名等,按姓名寫法處理。
* Lǐ Huá (李華)
* Wáng Jiànguó (王建國)
* Dōngfāng Shuò (東方朔)
* Zhūgě Kǒngmíng (諸葛孔明)
* Lǔ Xùn (魯迅)
* Méi Lánfāng (梅蘭芳)
* Zhāng Sān (張三)
* Wáng Mázi (王麻子)
* 姓名和職務、稱呼等分開寫;職務、稱呼等開頭小寫。
* Wáng bùzhǎng (王部長)
* Tián zhǔrèn (田主任)
* Lǐ xiānsheng (李先生)
* Zhào tóngzhì (趙同志)
* “老”、“小”、“阿”等稱呼開頭大寫。
* Xiǎo Liú (小劉)
* Lǎo Qián (老錢)
* Dà Lǐ (大李)
* A Sān (阿三)
* Wú Lǎo (吳老)
* 已經專名化的稱呼,連寫,開頭大寫。
* Kǒngzǐ (孔子)
* Bāogōng (包公)
* Xīshī (西施)
* Mèngchángjūn (孟嘗君)
4. 漢語地名按照中國地名委員會文件 (84)中地字第17號《中國地名中文拼音字母拼寫規則 (漢語地名部分) 》的規定拼寫。
* 漢語地名中的專名和通名分寫,每一分寫部分的第一個字母大寫。
* Běijīng Shì (北京市)
* Héběi Shěng (河北省)
* Yālù Jiāng (鴨綠江)
* Tài Shān (泰山)
* Dòngtíng Hú (洞庭湖)
* Táiwān Hǎixiá (臺灣海峽)
* 專名和通名的附加成分,單音節的與其相關部分連寫。
* Xīliáo Hé (西遼河)
* Jǐngshān Hòujiē (景山後街)
* Cháoyángménnèi Nánxiǎojiē (朝陽門內南小街)
* 自然村鎮名稱和其他不需區分專名和通名的地名,各音節連寫。
* Wángcūn (王村)
* Jiǔxiānqiáo (灑仙橋)
* Zhōupǐndiàn (周口店)
* Sāntányìnyuè (三潭印月)
5. 非漢語人名、地名本著“名從主人”的原則,按照羅馬字母 (拉丁字母)原文書寫;非羅馬字母文字的人名、地名,按照該文字的羅馬字母轉寫法拼寫。爲 了便于閱讀,可以在原文後面注上漢字或漢字的拼音,在 一定的場合也可以先用或僅用漢字的拼音。
* Ulanhu (烏蘭夫)
* Akutagawa Ryunosuke (介川龍之介)
* Ngapoi Ngawang Jigme (阿沛·阿旺晋美)
* Seypidin (賽福鼎)
* Marx (馬克思)
* Darwin (達爾文)
* Newton (牛頓)
* Einstein (愛因斯坦)
* Urümqi (烏魯木齊)
* Hohhot (呼和浩特)
* Lhasa (拉薩)
* London (倫敦)
* Paris (巴黎)
* Washington (華盛頓)
* Tokyo (東京)
* 漢語化的音譯名詞,按漢字譯音拼寫。
* Fēizhōu (非洲)
* Nánměi (南美)
* Déguó (德國)
* dōngnányà (東南亞)
3. 動詞
1. 動詞和“著”、“了”、“過”連寫。
* kànzhe (看著)
* jìnxíngzhe (進行著)
* kànle (看了)
* jìnxíngle (進行了)
* kànguò (看過)
* jìnxíngguò (進行過)
* 句末的“了”,分寫。
* Huǒchē dào le (火車到了。)
2. 動詞和賓詞,分寫。
* kàn xìn (看信)
* chī yú (吃魚)
* kāi wánxiào (開玩笑)
* jiāoliú jīngyàn (交流經驗)
* 動賓式合成詞中間插入其他成分的,分寫。
* jūle yī gè gōng (鞠了一個躬)
* lǐguò sān cì fà (理過三次發)
3. 動詞 (或形容詞)
4. 和補語,兩者都是單音節的,連寫;其餘的情况,分寫。
* gǎohuài (搞壞)
* dǎsǐ (打死)
* shútòu (熟透)
* jiànchéng (建成[樓房])
* huàwéi (化爲[蒸氣])
* dàngzuò (當做[笑話])
* zǒu jìnlái (走進來)
* zhěnglǐ hǎo (整理好)
* jiànshè chéng (建設成[公園])
* gǎixiě wéi (改寫爲[劇本])
4. 形容詞
1. 單音節形容詞和重叠的前加成分或後加成分,連寫。
* mēngmēngliàng (濛濛亮)
* liàngtángtáng (亮堂堂)
2. 形容詞和後面的“些”、“一些”、“點兒”、“一點兒”,分寫。
* dà xiē (大些)
* dà yīxiē (大一些)
* kuài diǎnr (快點兒)
* kuài yīdiǎnr (快一點兒)
5. 代詞
1. 表示複數的“們”和前面的代詞,連寫。
* wǒmen (我們)
* tāmen (他們)
2. 指示代詞“這”、“那”,疑問代詞“哪”和名詞或量詞,分詞。
* zhè rén (這人)
* nà cì huìyì (那次會議)
* zhè zhī chuán (這只船)
* nǎ zhāng bàozhǐ (哪張報紙)
* “這”、“那”、“哪”和“些”、“麽”、“樣”、“般”、“裏”、“邊”、“會兒”、“個”,連寫。
* zhèxiē (這些)
* zhème (這麽)
* nàyàng (那樣)
* zhèbān (這般)
* nàli (那裏)
* nǎli (哪里)
* zhèbiān (這邊)
* zhèhuìr (這會兒)
* zhège (這個)
* zhèmeyàng (這麽樣)
3. “各”、“每”、“某”、“本”、“該”、“我”、“你 ”等和後面的名詞或量詞,分寫。
* gè guó (各國)
* gè gè (各個)
* gè rén (各人)
* gè xuékē (各學科)
* měi nián (每年)
* měi cì (每次)
* mǒu rén (某人)
* mǒu gōngchǎng (某工廠 )
* mǒu shì (某市)
* běn bùmén (本部門)
* gāi kān (該刊)
* gāi gōngsī (該公司)
* wǒ xiào (我校)
* nǐ dānwèi (你單位)
6. 數詞和量詞。
1. 十一到九十九之間的整數,連寫。
* shíyī (十一 )
* shíwǔ (十五)
* sānshísān (三十三)
* jiǔshíjiǔ (九十九)
2. “百”、“千”、“萬”、“億”與前面的個位數,連寫;“萬”、“億”、與前面的十位以上的數,分寫。
* jiǔyì líng qīwàn èrqiān sānbǎi wǔshí liù (九億零七萬二千三百五十六)
* liùshísān yìqiānqiān èrbǎi liùshíbā wàn sìqiān líng jiǔshíwǔ (六十三億七千二百六十八萬四千零九十五)
3. 表示序數的“第”與後面的數詞中間,加短橫。
* dì-yī (第一)
* dì-shísān (第十三)
* dì-èrshíbā (第二十八)
* dì-sānbǎi wǔshíliù (第三百五十六)
4. 數詞和量詞,分寫。
* liǎng gè rén (兩個人)
* yī dà wǎn fàn (一大碗飯)
* liǎng jiān bàn wūzi (兩間半屋子)
* wǔshísān réncì (五十三人次)
* 表示約數的“多”、“來”、“幾”和數詞、量詞分寫。
* yībǎi duō gè (一百多個)
* shí lái wàn rén (十來萬人)
* jǐ jiā rén (幾家人)
* jǐ tiān gōngfu (幾天工夫)
* “十幾”、“幾十”連寫。
* shíjǐ gè rén (十幾個人)
* jǐshí gēn gāngguǎn (幾十根鋼管)
7. 虛詞
* 虛詞與其他詞語分寫。
1. 副詞
* hěn hǎo (很好)
* dōu lái (都來)
* gèng měi (更美)
* zuì dà (最大)
* bù lái (不來)
* yīng bù yīnggāi (應不應該)
* gānggāng zǒu (剛剛走)
* fēicháng kuài (非常快)
* shífēn gǎndòng (十分感動)
2. 介詞
* zài qiánmiàn (在前面)
* xiàng dōngbiān qù (向東邊去)
* Wèi rénmín fúwù (爲人民服務)
* cóng zuótiān qǐ (從昨天起)
* shēng yú 1940 nián (生于1940年)
* guānyú zhège wèntí (關于這個問題)
3. 連詞
* gōngrén hé nóngmín (工人和農民)
* bùdàn kuài érqiě hǎo (不但快而且好)
* guāngróng ér jiānjù (光榮而艱巨)
* nǐ lái háishi bù lái? (你來還是不來?)
4. 結構助詞“的”、“地”、“得”、“之”
* dà dì de nǚ’ér (大地的女兒)
* Zhè shì wǒ de shū. (這是我的書。)
* Wǒmen guòzhe xìngfú de shēnghuó. (我們過著幸福的生活。)
* Shāngdiàn li bǎimǎnle chīde, chuānde,yòngde. (商店裏擺滿了吃的、穿的、用的。寫 或 )
* mài qīngcài luóbo de (賣青菜蘿蔔的)
* Tā zài dàjiē shàng mànmàn de zǒu. (他在大街上慢慢地走。)
* Tǎnbái de gàosu nǐ ba. (坦白地告訴你吧。)
* Tā yī bù yī gè jiǎoyìnr de gōngzuòzhe. (他一步一個脚印兒地工作著。)
* dǎsǎo de gānjìng (打掃得乾淨)
* xiě de bù hǎo (寫得不好)
* hóng de hěn (紅得很)
* lěng de fādǒu (冷得發抖)
* shàonián zhī jiā (少年之家)
* zuì fādá de guójiā zhī yī (最發達的國家之一)
* 注:“的”、“地”、“得”在技術處理上,根據需要可以分別寫作“d”、“di”、“de”
5. 語氣助詞
* Nǐ zhīdao ma? (你知道嗎?)
* Zěnme hái bù lái a? (怎麽還不來啊?)
* Kuài qù ba! (快去吧!)
* Tā shì bù huì lái de. (他是不會來的。)
6. 嘆詞
* A! Zhēn měi! (啊!真美!)
* Ng, nǐ shuō shénme? (嗯,你說什麽?)
* Hm, zǒuzhe qiáo ba! (哼,走著瞧吧!)
7. 擬聲詞
* pa! (啪!)
* huahua (嘩嘩)
* jiji-zhazha (嘰嘰喳喳)
* “honglong”yī shēng (“轟隆”一聲)
* Dà gōngjī wo-wo-tí. (在公鶏喔喔啼。)
* “Du-”qìdí xiǎng le. (“嘟——”汽笛響了。)
8. 成語
1. 四言成語可以分爲兩個雙音節來念的,中間加短橫。
* céngchū-bùqióng (層出不窮)
* fēngpíng-làngjìng (風平浪靜)
* àizēng-fēnmíng (愛憎分明)
* shuǐdào-qúchéng (水到渠成)
* yángyáng-dàguān (洋洋大觀)
* píngfēn-qiūsè (平分秋色)
* guāngmíng-lěiluò (光明磊落)
* diānsān-dàosì (顛三倒四)
2. 不能按兩段來念的四言成語、熟語等,全部連寫。
* bùyìlèhū (不亦樂乎)
* zǒng’éryánzhī (總而言之)
* àimònéngzhù (愛莫能助)
* yīyīdàishuǐ (一衣帶水)
* húlihútu (糊裏糊塗)
* hēibùliūqiū (黑不溜秋)
* diào’érlángdāng (吊兒郎當)
9. 大寫
1. 句子開頭的字母和詩歌每行開頭的字母大寫。 (舉例略)
2. 專有名詞的第一個字母大寫。
* Běijīng (北京)
* Chángchéng (長城)
* Qīngmíng (清明)
* 由幾個片語成的專有名詞,每個詞的第一個字母大寫。
* Guójì Shūdiàn (國際書店)
* Hépíng Bīnguǎn (和平賓館)
* Guāngmíng Rìbào (光明日報)
3. 專有名詞和普通名詞連寫在一起的,第一個字母要大寫。
* Zhōngguórén (中國人)
* Míngshǐ (明史)
* Guǎngdōnghuà (廣東話)
* 已經轉化爲普通名詞的,第一個字母小寫。
* guǎnggān (廣柑)
* zhōngshānfú (中山服)
* chuānxiōng (川芎)
* zàngqīngguǒ (藏青果)
10. 移行
1. 移行要按音節分開,在沒有寫完的地方加上短橫。
* ………………………guāng-
míng (光明)
* 不能移作“………………………gu-
11. 標調
1. 聲調一律標原調,不標變調。
* yī jià (一架)
* yī tiān (一天)
* yī tóu (一頭)
* yī wǎn (一碗)
* qī wàn (七萬)
* qī běn (七本)
* bā gè (八個)
* qīshàngbāxià (七上八下)
* bù qù (不去)
* bù duì (不對)
* bùzhìyú (不至于)
* 但在語音教學時可以根據需要按變調標寫。
* 注:除了《中文拼音方案》規定的符號法以外,在技術處理上,也可根據需要采用數位或字母作爲臨時變通標調法。


* 本標準由國家教育委員會、國家語言文字工作委員會提出。
* 本標準由中文拼音正詞法委員會負責起草。
* 本標準主要起草人尹斌庸、李樂毅、金惠淑。

Chinese Pinyin Orthography -Basic Rules of Chinese Pinyin


# General rules:

1. Words are the basic units for spelling the Chinese Common Language.
* rén (person/people),
* péngyou (friend[s]),
* túshūguǎn (library/libraries)
2. Structures of two or three syllables that indicate a complete concept are linked:
* quánguó (the whole nation),
* duìbuqǐ (sorry),
* qiūhǎitáng (begonia)
3. Separate terms with more than 4 syllables if they can be separated into words, otherwise link all the syllables:
* wúfèng gāngbǐ (seamless pen),
* yánjiūshēngyuàn (graduate school),
* jīngtǐguǎn gōnglǜ fàngdàqì (transistor power amplifier),
* Hóngshízìhuì (Red Cross)
4. Reduplicated monosyllabic words are linked, but reduplicated disyllabic words are separated:
* rénrén (everybody),
* chángshi chángshi (give it a try)
Juxtaposed reduplications (AABB structures) are separated by a hyphen:
* láilái-wǎngwǎng (come to and fro)
* qīngqīng-chǔchǔ (be clearly)
5. In certain situations, for the purpose of making it convenient to read and understand the words, a hyphen can be added:
* huán-bǎo (environmental protection)
* shíqī-bā suì (17 or 18 years old)

# Nouns:

1. Monosyllabic prefixes and suffixes are linked with nouns. Prefixes: fù- (vice), zǒng- (general/main/chief), fēi- (non), fǎn- [anti], chāo- (super/surpass), lǎo – (old/venerable), A – (marker of a nickname/endearment), kě (-ble), wú- (non), and so forth. Suffixes: -zǐ, -ér, -tóu (head, nominal ending), -xìng (nature), -zhě/yuán (-ist), -jiā (expert/-ist), -shǒu (hand/person/expert/-ist), -huà (-ized), men (-s/es), and so forth). For example:
* fù-bùzhǎng (vice-director of a [government] department),
* zǒng-gōngchéngshī (chief engineer),
* yìshùjiā (artist [in general]).
2. Nouns and the directional words/locations after them are separated.
* mén wài (outside the door)=mén wàimian (/wàibiān/wàitou),
* huǒchē shàngmian (on the train)
The syllables of lexical items are linked.
* hǎiwài (this means “overseas,” not “outside of the sea”)
3. Surnames and given names (xìngmíng/míngzi) are written separately in the Chinese Han language. The first letters of surnames and the given names are capitalized. Pen names (bǐmíng) and nicknames (biémíng) are written according to the same principles:
* Wáng Jiànguó,
* Dōngfāng Shuò,
* Zhāng Sān
A personal name and the person’s professional title are separated:
* Wáng bùzhǎng,
* Lǐ xiānsheng/xs
The first letter of personal addresses such as Lǎo, Xiǎo, Dà, Ā, and so forth are capitalized. For example:
* Xiǎo Liú (Little Liu),
* Wú Lǎo (honorable Old Wu),
* ` Sān (The Third [in a family])
When the surname of historically well-known figures is combined with a respectful or descriptive term by which they are commonly known, the syllables are linked, and the first letter is capitalized. For example:
* Kǒngzǐ (Confucius),
* Bāogōng (Grand Judge Bao),
* Xīshī (Beauty Xishi)
4. Proper names and general names of places are separated and the first letter of each of the names is capitalized.
* Běijīng Shì (Beijing City),
* Dòngtíng Hú (Lake Dongting)
The monosyllabic prefixes or suffixes of proper names and general names are linked. For examples:
* Jǐngshān Hòujiē (Back Street of Jingshan),
* Cháoyángménnèi Nánxiǎojiē (Southern Small Street Inside the Gate Facing the Sun)
Link the syllables of established names for villages, towns, and other places when it is not necessary to distinguish whether they are proper names or general names (the first letter is capitalized). For example:
* Wángcūn (Wang Village),
* Zhōukǒudiàn (a place near Beijing where the fossilized remains of Peking Man were discovered),
* Sāntányìnyuè (Moon Reflected in Three Ponds)
5. Personal and place names not in the Chinese Han language, based on the principle of “according with the custom of the person in question (míng cóng zhǔrén),” are written either in the original language or transcribed in Roman letters. For example:
* Einstein (Ài’īnsītǎn),
* Ngapoi Ngawang Jigme (Āpèi Āwàng Jìnměi),
* London (Lúndūn),
* Washington (Huáshèngdùn)
Foreign names transcribed in the Chinese Han language are written according to the pronunciation of the corresponding characters. For example:
* Nánměi (South America),
* Déguó (Germany),
* Dōngnányà (Southeast Asia)

# Verbs:

1. (Monosyllabic) action verbs are linked with the suffixes zhe, le, guo. For example:
* kànzhe (reading/looking),
* kànle (read [once at a past moment/time]),
* kànguò (have/had read [at least once])
Le at the end of a sentence is separated from the sentence. For example:
* Huǒchē dào le (Completed action: The train came/has come).
2. Action Verbs and their Objects are separated. For example:
* kàn xìn (read a letter),
* chī yú (eat fish),
* kāi wánxiào (make a joke)
But the action verb and object are linked when they together express one concept. For example:
* chīfàn (eat/make a living),
* shuìjiào (sleep),
* kànshū (read),
* dǎqiú (play [ball game]),
* jūgōng (bow),
* kētóu (kowtow)
The syllables of Verb+Object type compound words are written separately when another element is inserted between the syllables. For example:
* jūgōng (bow) à jūle yī ge gōng (bowed once)
3. An Action Verb and its complement are linked if both are monosyllabic. Otherwise they are separated. For example:
* gǎohuài (ruin it),
* zǒu jìnlái (walk in),
* xiūlǐ hǎo (fix/repair [and make] it [mended])

# Adjectives:

1. Monosyllabic adjectives link with their reduplicated prefixes or suffixes. For example:
* mēngmēngliàng (dimly bright),
* liàngtāngtāng (brightly lit)
2. Adjectives are separated from xiē, yīxiē, diǎnr, yīdiǎn that follow them. For example:
* kuài (yī)xiē ([be] faster),
* kuài (yī)diǎn ([be] faster)

# Pronouns:

1. Men indicates the plural and is linked with the noun in front of it. For example:
* wǒmen (we/us),
* tāmen (they/them)
2. Demonstrative pronouns zhè, nà and the interrogative demonstrative pronoun nǎ are separated from the nouns that follow them.
* zhè (ge) rén (this person),
* zhè zhī chuán (this boat),
* nǎ zhāng bàozhǐ (which newspaper?)
zhè, nà, nǎ are linked with xiē, me, yàng, bān, lǐ, biān, huǐr, ge
* zhèxiē (these),
* zhège (this one),
* nàyàng (that way/then),
* zhèhuǐr (at this moment)
3. Gè, měi, mǒu, běn, gāi, wǒ, nǐ, and so forth are separated from the nouns or measure words that follow them. For example:
* gè guó (each country),
* gè gè (each, every),
* měi nián (every year),
* gāi gōngsī (this/that company)

# Numerals and measure words:

1. Whole numbers from eleven to ninety-nine are written together
* shíwǔ (fifteen),
* sānshísān (thirty-three)
2. Bǎi (hundred), qiān (thousand), wàn (ten thousand), yì (hundred million) are linked with the integer in front of them, but “ten thousand” and “hundred million” are separated from zeros following them. For example:
* jiǔyì líng qīwàn èrqiān sānbǎi wǔshíliù (900,072,356)
3. Di + Numeral indicates order, and it is linked by a hyphen with the number. For example:
* dì-shísān (thirteenth),
* dì-èrshíbā (twenty-eighth)
4. Numbers and Measure Words are separated:
* liǎng ge rén (two people),
* yī dà wǎn fàn (a big bowl of cooked rice)
“Duō, lái, jǐ” indicate a rough quantity (yuēshù), and they are separated from the numbers and measure words that precede and follow them. For example:
* yībǎi duō ge (more than 100),
* shí lái wàn rén (about 100,000 people)
Numbers indicating “more than ten and several score” are linked. For example:
* shíjǐ ge rén (more than ten people),
* jǐshí ge rén (several tens of people)

# Function Words (xūcí) are separated from other words:

1. Adverbs:
* hěn hǎo (be good/fine),
* zuì dà (be the biggest),
* fēicháng kuài (be extremely fast)
2. Prepositions:
* zài qiánmiàn (in the front),
* shēng yú 1940 nian (was born in 1940)
3. Conjunctions:
* nǐ hé wǒ (you and I);
* Nǐ lái háishi bù lái? (Are you coming [or not]?)
4. The Constructive Auxiliaries (jiégòu zhùcí) de/d (的 ), de/di (地 ), de (得), zhi (之).
* mài cài d(e) (vegetable seller[s]),
* mànmàn de/di zou (walk slowly),
* hóng de hěn (be really red)
5. The Model Auxiliary is written separately at the end of a sentence:
* Nǐ zhīdào ma? (Do/Did you know)?
* Kuài qù ba! (Hurry and go!)
6. Exclamation:
* A, zhēn měi! (Ah, It’s really beautiful!)
7. Onomatopoeia:
* Pā! (Bang!”);
* Hōnglōng yi sheng (a rumbling sound)

# Set Phrases (chéngyǔ):

1. Four-character Set Phrases that can be divided into two halves are linked by a hyphen. For example:
* céngchū-bùqióng (happens/ed endlessly),
* guāngmíng-lěiluò (be righteous)
2. All other four-character set phrases and well-known expressions (shúyǔ) that cannot be readily segmented are linked. For example:
* bùyìlèhū (Isn’t it a happy thing?)
* àimònéngzhù (Sorry that I can’t help you).

# Capital Letters:

1. The letter at the beginning of a sentence is capitalized. For example:
* Míngtian nǐ qù ma? (Are you going tomorrow?)
2. The first letter of a proper noun is capitalized. For example:
* Běijīng Dàxué (Peking University);
* Tài Shān (Mount Tai);
* Huáng Hé (Yellow River)

# Hyphenation:

1. Care should be taken to hyphenate only between the syllables of words and other linked expressions at the ends of lines of running texts.

# Indication of Tones:

1. Only the original tones are indicated; tone sandhi is not indicated.